Evaluation of Polyethylene Wax and Paraffin as Anti Wear and Extreme Pressure Additives in Virgin Sesame Base Stock

Arnoldo Emilio Delgado Tobón, William Arnulfo Aperador Chaparro

Abstract


This research was carried out in order to study the performance of polyethylene wax and paraffin as additives to improve the lubricating characteristics of virgin sesame oil. Three blends of sesame oil were prepared as follows: without additive (control), polyethylene wax (1%w/w) and paraffin (1%w/w). The lubricating properties of the blends were characterized by tribology four balls: the average diameter of wear scare and the coefficient of friction were determined from the Wear Preventive test; the last non-seizure load and the weld point were calculated by the Extreme Pressure test. The morphology of the ball-scares from the Wear Preventive test were observed through Electronic Scanning Microscopy. The ball-scares from the Extreme Pressure test were observed by optical microscopy. The polyethylene wax and paraffin at concentrations of 1% w/w did not show a significant improvement in the lubricant characteristics of virgin sesame oil, according to the results obtained from the tribology testing.


Keywords


: Sesame oil, tribology; biolubricants; polyethylene wax; paraffin

Full Text:

PDF

References


C. Chung, M.T. Wah Noor Khairin, W. H. Lim, Y. Shoot Kian and Zainab I. “Tribological behavior of biolubricant base stocks and additives,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 93, pp. 145–157, 2018.

McNutt J, He Q. “Development of biolubricants from vegetable oils via chemical modification,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 36, pp. 1–12, 2016.

S. Syahrullail, M. Hariz, M. A. Hamid and A. A. Bakar, “Friction Characteristic of Mineral Oil Containing Palm Fatty Acid Distillate using Four Ball Tribo-tester,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 68, pp. 166 – 171, 2013.

Ponnekanti Nagendramma∗, Savita Kaul. “Development of ecofriendly/biodegradable lubricants: An overview,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, pp. 764– 774, 2012.

B. J. Hamrock and D. Dowson, “Ball bearing lubrication: the elastohydrodynamics of el- liptical contacts,” New York: Wiley-Interscience; 1981.

Stachowiak GW, Batchelor AW. Engineering tribology. 4rth ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2013;. Chapter 8: boundary and extreme pressure lubrication. 4rth ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2013.

R. W. Bruce, “Handbook of lubrication and tribology: theory and design,”.2nd ed. London: Taylor & Francis; 2012; (b) Bruce RW. Section 1: theory and practice of lubrication and tribology. 2nd ed. London: Taylor & Francis; 2012.

ASTM D4172-18. Standard Test Method for Wear Preventive Characteristics of Lubricating Fluid (FourBall Method), 2018.

J. C. Bart, E. Gucciardi and S. Cavallaro, “Biolubricants: science and technology,”Oxford: Woodhead Publishing, p. 351–95, 2013.

J. C. Bart, E. Gucciardi and S. Cavallaro, “Chemical transformations of renewable lubricant feedstocks,” In Biolubricants Science and Technology, Woodhead Publishing Limited, vol. 46, pp. 249-350, 2013.

M. A. Kalam, H.H. Masjuki, H. M. Cho, M. H. Mosarof, M. I. Mahmud, M. A. Chowdhury and N. W. Zulkifli, “Influences of thermal stability, and lubrication performance of biodegradable oil as an engine oil for improving the efficiency of heavy duty diesel engine,” Fuel, vol. 196, pp. 36–46, 2017.

N. A. Mohamad, R. Yunus, U. Rashid and N. W. Zulkifli, “Temperature effect on tribological properties of polyol ester-based environmentally adapted lubricant,” Tribol. Int., vol. 93, pp. 43–49, 2016.

N. W. Zulkifli, S. Azman, M. Kalam, H. Masjuki, R. Yunus and M. Gulzar, “Lubricity of bio-based lubricant derived from different chemically modified fatty acid methyl ester,” Tribol. Int., vol. 93, pp. 555-562, 2016.

C. Reeves, P. Menezes, T. Jen and M. Lovell, “The influence of fatty acids on tribological and thermal properties of natural oils as sustainable biolubricants,” Tribol. Int., vol. 90, pp. 123–134, 2015.

N. J. Fox, B. Tyrer and G. W. Stachowiak, “Boundary lubrication performance of free fatty acids in sunflower oil,” Tribol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 275–281, 2004.

N. Salih, J. Salimon and E. Yousif, “Synthetic bio-lubricant basestocks based on environmentally friendly raw materials,” J. King Saud Univ.– Sci., vol. 24, pp. 3221–3226, 2012.

B. Kim, R. Mourhatch and P. B. Aswath, “Properties of tribofilms formed with ashless di- thiophosphate and zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate under extreme pressure conditions,” Wear, vol. 268, pp. 579–591, 2010.

F. L. Guzman Borda, S. J. Ribeiro de Oliveira, L. M. Seabra Monteiro Lazaro, and A. J. Kalab Leiróz, “Experimental investigation of the tribological behavior of lubricants with additive containing copper nanoparticles,” Tribol. Int., vol. 117, pp. 52–58, 2018.

M. S. Silva, E. L. Foletto, S. M. Alves , T. N. De Castro and A. A. Dantas, “New hydraulic biolubricants based on passion fruit and moringa oils and their epoxy,” Ind. Crops Prod., vol. 69, pp. 362–370, 2015.

C. Reeves, P. Menezes, M. Lovell and T. Jen, “The influence of surface roughness and particulate size on the tribological performance of biobased multifunctional hybrid lubricants,” Tribol. Int., vol. 88, pp. 40–55, 2015.

N. Talib, R. Nasir and E. Rahim, “Tribological behavior of modified jatropha oil by mixing hexagonal boron nitride nanoparticles as a bio-based lubricant for machining processes,” J. Clean Prod., vol. 147, pp. 360–373, 2017.

M. A. Delgado, L. A. Quinchia, H. A. Spikes and C. Gallegos, “Suitability of ethyl cellulose as multifunctional additive for blends of vegetable oil-based lubricants”. J Clean. Prod., vol. 151, pp. 1–9, 2017.

L. A. Quinchia, M.A. Delgado, T. Reddyhoff, C. Gallegos and H. A. Spikes, “Tribological studies of potential vegetable oil-based lubricants containing environmentally friendly viscosity modifiers. Tribol Int 2014;69:110–7.

Z, Xiangqiong, S. Heyang, R. Wenqi, H. Zhongyia, and R. Tianhuia, “Tribological study of trioctylthiotriazine derivative as lubricating oil additive”, Wear, vol. 258, pp. 800–805, 2005.

H. Weijiu, J. Dong, G. Wu and C. Zhang, “Tribological performance and action mechanism of S-[2-(acetamido)thiazol-1-yl] dialkyl dithiocarbamate as additive in rapeseed oil,” Wear, vol. 256, pp. 1106–1113, 2004

S. Yubin, H. Litian and X. Qunji, “Tribological properties and action mechanism of N,N-dialkyl dithiocarbamate-derived S-hydroxyethyl borate esters as additives in rapeseed oil,” Wear, vol. 266, 917–924, 2009.

J. Li, Y. Zhang, T. Ren, Liu, W., Fu, X. Tribological evaluation of S-(1H-benzotriazole-1-yl) methyl N,N-dialkyldithiocarbamates as additives in rapeseed oil. Wear 253 (2002) 720–724

W. Liu, C. Ye, Q. Gong, H. Wang and P. Wang, “Tribological performance of room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricant,” Tribol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 81-85, 2002.

A. Schneider, J. Brenner and C. Tomastik and F. Franek, “Capacity of selected ionic liquids as alternative EP/AW additive”, Lubr. Sci., vol. 22, pp. 215-23, 2010.

ASTM D5183-03. Standard Test Method for Determination of the Coefficient of Friction of Lubricants Using the Four-Ball Wear Test Machine, 2016.

ASTM D2783-03. Standard Test Method for Measurement of Extreme-Pressure Properties of Lubricating Fluids (Four-Ball Method), 2009.

S. Rani, M. L. Joy and K. P. Nair, “Evaluation of physiochemical and tribological properties of rice bran oil - biodegradable and potential base stoke for industrial lubricants,” Ind. Crops Prod., vol.65, pp. 328–33, 2015.

N. Salih, J. Salimon and E. Yousif, “The physicochemical and tribological properties of oleic acid based triester biolubricants,” Ind. Crops Prod., vol. 34, pp. 1089–1096, 2011.

N. W. Zulkifli, M. Kalam, H. Masjuki, M. Shahabuddin and R. Yunus, “Wear prevention characteristics of a palm oil-based TMP (trimethylolpropane) ester as an engine lubricant,” Energy, vol. 54, pp. 167–173, 2013.

M. Gulzar, H. Masjuki, M. Varman, M. Kalam, R. Mufti, N. Zulkifli, “Improving the AW/EP ability of chemically modified palm oil by adding CuO and MoS2 nanoparticles,” Tribol. Int., vol. 88, pp.271–279, 2015.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18180/tecciencia.2019.27.3

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 TECCIENCIA